C D E F G H I
J K L M N O P
Q R S T U V W
X Y Z
||Advanced Audio Coder. An audio-encoding standard for MPEG-2 that is not backward-compatible with MPEG-1 audio.
||In this mode, you choose the encoder will maintain an average
bitrate while using higher bitrates for the
parts of your music that need more bits. The
result will be of higher quality than CBR
encoding but the average file size will remain predictable, so this
mode is highly recommended over CBR. This encoding mode is similar
to what is referred as VBR in AAC or Liquid
Audio (2 other compression technologies).
||Advanced SCSI Programming Interface. Originally developed by
Adaptec. It is a software layer that enables programs to
communicate with SCSI and ATAPI devices (CD and DVD drives and
other storage peripherals).
||Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface. ATAPI allows
your PC support removable drives. ATAPI devices use your IDE
channel to communicate with your computer. The ATAPI interface has
now been enhanced to support faster data transfers.
||A buffer in the system target decoder for storage of compressed
||Short for binary digit. Bits are usually designated either a 0
or 1 (representing on/off states) and are the smallest unit of
information on a computer.
||The speed at which digital audio and video content must be
streamed to be rendered properly by a player; or the speed at which
digital content in general is streamed on a network. Bit rate is
usually measured in kilobits per second (Kbps),
for example, 28.8 Kbps.
||An ordered series of bits that forms the coded representation
of the data.
||Abbreviation for bits per second.
||The process of permanently archiving data to a blank CD. CD
drives that are used to write data to blank CDs are called "CD
burners" or "CD writers".
||Constant Bitrate is a type of encoding method used when an
MP3 file is created. Constant Bitrate Encoding
is a method that ensures a consistent bitrate throughout an encoded
file at the expense of audio quality and/or encoder efficiency. The
encoder allocates the same number of bits to difficult and easy
sections. As a result, difficult sections may suffer quality
degradation while easy sections may include unused bits.
||An optical storage medium for digital data, usually audio. A
compact disc (CD) is a nonmagnetic, polished metal disc with a
protective plastic coating that can hold more than 1 hour of
||CDDB (Compact Disc Data Base) is used for retrieving audio disc
title and track names from an Internet database. CDDB consists of
servers containing CD information from all over the world. You have
to specify address of this server and HTTP path of script on the
server. Optionally you have to specify your e-mail.
||Compact Disc-Recordable - A type of compact disc that can be
recorded upon in digital format. A CD-R can be used to store
computer files or digital audio. Like all digital media, the copy
made on the CD-R is identical to the original. A CD-R can be
recorded upon only once - it cannot be erased or re-recorded
||Abbreviation for Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. A CD-ROM is a
standard compact disc containing data files that may include text
files, audio files, video files or any other type of files. Most
CD-ROMs can hold 650 megabytes of data. CD-ROMs can only be read -
they cannot be written on. The files on a CD-ROM can be accessed
using a PC with a CD-ROM drive.
||Compact Disc-ReWritable. A CD-RW is just like a CD-R except
that it can be written over or re-recorded over. Like CD-R, the
CD-RW is in digital format, and therefore allows identical copying
of files with no loss of quality.
||A sequence of data representing an audio signal intended to be
reproduced at one listening position.
||Short for compressor/decompressor. Codecs are various types of
computer algorithms that are applied to audio, video, and image
files to compress the size of the files. The benefit of this is
that the files do not use as much disk space when stored or network
bandwidth when streamed. An MP3 is an example of a codec; it
provides the tools to compress an audio file into a smaller size,
and the tools to read the compressed file and play it back as
though it was never compressed in the first place.
||Reduction in the number of bits used to
represent an item of data.
||Operation where the bitrate is constant from start to finish of
the compressed bitstream.
||Cyclic Redundancy Check. CRC is used to detect any errors
happened after encoding. See CBR for more
||Decoder is what converts an MP3 file into something you can
||Using bits to represent variables and store information, rather
than analog, which uses physical change to represent variables.
Digital recordings represent sounds that have been converted into
groups of electronic bits, or zeroes and ones, and stored on a
magnetic medium; those groups of bits are then read electronically.
In the case of a CD player, the bits are read by a laser beam.
Conversely, with analog technology, the grooves on a vinyl record
are read physically by a needle. Because digital data are
represented numerically, they can be copied repeatedly and each
succeeding generation of copies is identical to the original.
||Digital Versatile Disc. DVD is an high density media which
looks like a CD-ROM. It can have one or two
sides containing data, and each side can be single or double layer.
Each layer have a 4.7 gigabytes maximum capacity, so the total
maximum capacity of a DVD is 18.8 gigabytes.
||Application or tool that converts an audio file into another
||Process of converting analog or digital multimedia content into
another type of compressed form, such as MP3.
||There are three types of the encoding modes - constant bitrate
(CBR), average bitrate (ABR)
and variable bitrate (VBR).
||The abbreviation for equalizer or graphic equalizer, an
electronic mechanism for adjusting the volume of selected frequency
||Frequently Asked Questions. A good place to search for
information before posting on the forums.
||During mastering, the CD-ROM sector is subdivided into 98
frames, and the bytes in those frames are modulated from 8 to 14
bit structures and provided with three merging bits, to insure
fluid concatenation. All this manipulation of frames and bits is
done by the equipment, and is transparent to the user. In motion
video parlance, however, a frame is the unit of display, at a rate
of so many frames per second. And, in video compression, as in
MPEG, each frame is divided in two fields (each composed of
alternating lines in the frame), reason for also being known as
'half-frames'. The compression process generally operates on the
||FreeDB is a database to look up CD information using the
Internet. This is done by a client (a FreeDB aware application)
which calculates a (nearly) unique disc ID for a CD in your CD-Rom
and then queries the database. As a result, the client displays the
artist, CD-title, track list and some additional informations you
can also search for CD-info in the FreeDB via the web-based
||G2 is the name of the RealNetworks most recent audio/video
CODEC technology. The G2 includes several features targeted
specifically at streaming media applications including
synchronization with other media types such as video and graphics,
and the ability to handle data loss. According to RealAudio, the G2
Music Codec can handle packet loss up to 10-15% with minimal
reduction of audio quality.
||An MP3 ID3 Tag is information stored at the end of an MP3 file.
The tag can contain information about the Title/Songname, Artist,
Album, Year, Comment, and Genre in version 1 and also Track in
version 1.1. A proposed Version 2 is out which would be extendable
to include more information and picture(s). Home site: http://www.id3.org
||A method of exploiting stereo irrelevance or redundancy in
stereophonic audio programs based on retaining at high frequencies
only the energy envelope of the right and left channels.
||Is a term used for the inherent uncertainty in most CD-ROM
units, which is caused by the way audio is stored on a CD. Although
one logical block on a CD takes up 2352 bytes, the amount of data
stored in the block varies. For a data block, 2052 bytes are actual
data, and the remaining 300 bytes are information used to
accurately find the block. For audio, however, all 2352 bytes
contain audio data - there is no positioning information returned
in the block read. When CDs first came out, they were used for
audio, and it didn't matter if a CD player got within +/- 1/75 of a
second of the intended start position. After it started, as long as
the player kept reading, it could accurately read the data - the
problem only came about when initially seeking the start
||Is the process of trying to compensate for "jitter" in
software. Generally, it involves using overlapping reads, and
attempting to match the end of one read with the beginning of the
next, so that there are no gaps in the data read. These gaps cause
clicks and pops in the resulting WAV or MP3 file produced. For
instance, the program might begin reading a track at block 1000 and
read 27 blocks total. On the next read, it would issue a read
command starting at 1024, and would try to match the end of the
first read in the beginning of the second read. Once it finds a
match, it would cut off the beginning of the second read, and use
only the part after the match. In this way, you can eliminate the
clicks and pops.
|Joint stereo coding
||Any method that exploits stereophonic irrelevance or
|Joint stereo mode
||A mode of the audio coding algorithm using joint stereo
||Kilobits per second. Used for measuring the rate at which data
||Compression techniques that allow the original data to be
recreated without loss. Contrast with lossy compression.
||M3U files are the MP3 standard for playlist names and are
recognized by most MP3 players. M3U files are actually text files
that contain lists with the name and directory of MP3 files on your
computer. MP3TagEditor and CDRipper support this type of the
||A standard protocol for the interchange of musical information
between musical instruments, synthesizers and computers. It defines
the codes for a musical event, which include the start of a note,
its pitch, length, volume, and musical attributes, such as vibrato.
It also defines codes for various button, dial, and pedal
adjustments used on synthesizers.
||MP2 is an acronym for MPEG-1 audio layer 2. It is a music
compression scheme used in CD-V and DVD-video.
||MP3 is the standard for downloadable music on the Internet. MP3
is a type of MPEG digital compression technology that takes a large
audio file and then compresses it into a significantly smaller size
that can be easily downloaded to your computer. Even though MP3
files are significantly smaller than the original file, the audio
quality of the MP3 file sounds virtually the same as the original
file. The name MP3 actually comes from the layer 3 section of the
MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 specification. Developed in Germany in 1991 by
the Fraunhofer Institute.
||MPEG is an acronym for Moving Picture Experts Group - an
international subcommittee that develops standards for digital
audio and video compression. MPEG files are smaller than other
digital multimedia formats, so they use less disk space while
maintaining the quality of the original source.
||MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 are MPEG compression specifications. Each
specification includes a set of rules to follow for file
compression. When an MPEG-compliant MP3 file is created (encoded),
the compression program checks the properties of the file and then
follows the MPEG specification to create the MP3 file.
|MPEG Audio Layers
||MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 both have a three-layer structure, each of
which represents a family of coding algorithms. These layers are
noted in the standards using Roman figures (Layer I, Layer II, and
Layer III). Note that for Internet audio applications MPEG-1 Layer
III audio has become known as MP3.
||Irrelevant, meaningless, or erroneous information added to a
signal by the recording or transmission medium or by an
encoding/decoding process. An advantage of digital formats over
analog formats is that noise can be completely eliminated (although
new noise may be introduced by compression).
||A process of boosting the signal of an audio file to its
maximum level without causing distortion.
||Ogg is the name of an open source multimedia project maintained
by the xiph.org foundation. Vorbis refers to the lossy general
purpose audio compression format that surpasses mp3 in quality and
rivals new formats such as AAC and TwinVQ
(a.k.a. VQF). Home sites: http://www.xiph.org
||Pulse Code Modulation. Coding where input signal is represented
by a given number of fixed-width samples per second. Often used for
the coding employed in the telephone network.
||A personalized list of links to various audio and video files
on your computer, your network, or the Internet, including radio
stations and broadband broadcasts. You can create a playlist from
any combination of media sources. The items in the list are played
sequentially. You can change the order of items in your playlist by
dragging and dropping. MP3TagEditor auto generate M3U play list with encoded MP3 files (on mode "CD to
WAV" and "WAV to MP3") or with ripped WAV file (mode "CD to
||Playlist file that contain lists with the name and directory of
audio files on your computer. MP3TagEditor and CDRipper support
this type of the playlist file.
||A proxy server is a kind of buffer between your computer and
the Internet resources you are accessing. The data you request come
to the proxy first, and only then it transmits the data to
||A slang term for digital audio extraction from an audio CD
without loss of quality.
||RTP (Real-Time Protocol) is the standard Internet protocol for
transporting real-time data, such as MP3 audio streams.
||A digital value representing the instantaneous value of an
||The number of times a digital sample is taken, measured in
samples per second, or Hertz. The more often samples are taken, the
better a digital signal can represent the original analog signal.
Sampling theory states that the sampling frequency must be more
than twice the signal frequency in order to reproduce the signal
without aliasing. DVD PCM audio allows sampling
rates of 48 and 96 kHz.
||Converting analog information into a digital representation by
measuring the value of the analog signal at regular intervals,
called samples, and encoding these numerical values in digital
form. Sampling is often based on specified quantization levels.
Sampling may also be used to adjust for differences between
different digital systems.
||Sampling Frequency (Fs) defines the rate in Hertz which is used
to digitize an audio signal during the sampling process.
||Small Computer Systems Interface. A storage device or
peripheral interface, used both for internal and external devices.
Invented by an IBM employee, but championed by Apple Computer, this
standard has been enhanced and revised repeatedly throughout the
years. It is used as the preferred interface for the direct
attachment of high-performance disk drives on computer servers and
||A logical grouping of data on a disc. A CD is arranged in
sectors which contain 2048 bytes of data. A sector is the smallest
addressable unit on a CD. Each sector has a unique address.
||A PC circuit card that provides the means for your computer to
convert digital audio files to stereo sound through external
sources such as amplified speaker systems. Sound cards also provide
software that lets you modify such audio file characteristics as
frequency ranges for various instruments, stereo balance,
distortion and ambience. Sound cards are included with most modern
PCs. Virtually all Macintoshes have built-in sound capabilities
that do not require a sound card.
||An ordered series of bits that forms the coded representation
of the data.
||Streaming refers to the playback of audio in real-time as it is
transferred across the Internet. The advantage of this approach is
that the user does not have wait for the entire music file to be
downloaded before hearing it. The tradeoff is that the music must
be highly compressed in order to support the access rates that most
users have, typically 28.8 to 56 Kbps. This gives internet users
instant gratification but relatively poor playback quality. In
addition streaming audio players do not capture the content, so
each time the clip is played it is transferred again.
||An audio presentation channel added to the front channels (Left
and Right or Left, Right, and Central) to enhance the spatial
||A tooltip is a small rectangular window with a short
description of the function showing when one points with mouse
cursor at a button or icon.
||An individual song or other discrete piece of content from a
||A process of deleting the blank spaces in the beginning and at
the end of a song.
||Variable Bitrate is a type of encoding method used when an MP3
file is created. Variable Bitrate encoding ensures consistently
high audio quality throughout an encoded file by making intelligent
bit-allocation decisions during the encoding process. VBR-encoded
files are typically smaller than files encoded using the CBR encoding method because the encoder puts bits where
they are most needed.
||WAV files, like MP3 files, are a format for storing digital
audio on a computer. WAV files are extremely high-quality and,
consequently, take up more space than MP3 files of equal time
||WMA (Windows Media Audio) is the umbrella name for the
products, product components and services from Microsoft that give
you the ability to create, deliver, and play streaming files in the
Advanced Streaming Format. The primary components of the Windows
Media Technologies are the Windows Media Tools, Windows Media
Services streaming server, and Windows Media Player. These provide
an end-to-end solution for streaming multimedia, from content
authoring to delivery to playback.